Someone asked for gravy about the most extreme 'known' parts of Antarctica so here's what I got.
I'll start warming the biscuits by introducing this graphic. This is an azimuthal earth projection, onto which I highlighted the restricted 60th parallel south as referenced by the Antarctic Treaty System, past which you need a permit from one of the treaty countries to access.
Now that the context is set, let's start talking about the mainstream story on Antarctic domes. I was inspired to look up the following based on Owen's instagram post he made about someone who sent him an old encyclopedia that referenced an Antarctic dome, which probably sounded strange to most of us. Keep in mind, while this is a 'mainstream' story, I've never heard of almost any of this despite watching Antarctic documentaries and so forth over the years.
Dome Argus, Highest point on antarctica.
Dome Charlie, Stars can be observed here even when Sun is at its maximum 38 degrees elevation.
^ obscured in the description of a random image is stated that there are daily flights to Concordia Station/Dome C during the austral summer season.
Dome Fuji, Japanese station, ice core sampling.
Apparently there's virtually no wind or humidity here. Remote-controlled telescope was set up here recently for this reason.
*super sneaky music*
Coldest place on earth, Pole of Cold, located near the south geomagnetic pole. Vostok Station was established on 16 December 1957. The Antarctic Treaty System was put into place on 1 December 1959.
Subglacial lake. "The first core of freshly frozen lake ice was obtained on 10 January 2013 at a depth of 3,406 m"
After reading all of those, I still didn't find out why they call them domes or if that's a common term. Maybe a student of geography could weigh in?